Retrospective Study on Fetomaternal Outcome in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) emerge as the commonest medical complication and metabolic disorder of pregnancy, showing a global prevalence of between 2% and 6%. GDM is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. 

A recent retrospective analytical study evaluated the risk factors and feto-maternal outcomes in mothers with Gestational diabetes mellitus. 

It included Antenatal patients beyond 22 weeks of gestation with deranged sugars. The GDM was diagnosed by Oral Glucose Tolerance test or by FBS, PPBS values. 

The diabetic mothers were given a diabetic diet and insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents according to their requirements and monitored. The risk factors and effects on maternal and fetal outcomes were compared among the groups. 

The results were as follows-

  • Gestational diabetes mellitus showed a higher incidence in mothers aged > 30 years, with increased parity and increased pre-pregnancy BMI. 
  • The babies born to GDM mothers showed more incidence of being born preterm and an increase in the incidence of delivery by the Caesarian Section. 
  • The GDM babies show a higher mean birth weight (3.43 kg) and a higher incidence of IUFD in mothers with GDM. 
  • Patients with GDM have a significantly higher feto-maternal morbidity. 

Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus show significant feto-maternal morbidity. Thus, early detection by screening and timely intervention is necessary for a better feto-maternal outcome.

Rajshree D, Adithi JP. Retrospective Study on Fetomaternal Outcome in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. J Gynecol 2021, 6(4): 000225.

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